Archive for the ‘Hungarian Secession History’ Category

At the turn of the Century, like in many other Italian cities, also in Parma began a full recovery of public housing and residential houses ,thus reflecting the changing conditions of economic and cultural-historical conditions, strictly related to the progressive destruction of the ancient mighty ramparts. By an architectural point of view, the re- was stilistically related to the introduction of lively and stimulating aesthetic ideas of the Art Nouveau. In the case of Parma the adoption of the new style was progressive and gradual:at the very beginning, decoration took the very part of the stylistic renovation while it was only in the second decade of the XX century that a more conscious adoption of the architectural topic of the modernist movement had a meaningful development in Emilia and in Parma ( see also the article on the Salsomaggiore Spa, http://www.szecesszio.com/2010/04/08/terme-berzieri-spa-in-salsomaggiore-pr-architect-ugo-giusti-decorations-by-galileo-chini/).

Parma Verona 2010Parma Verona 2010

In Parma and his province flourishes the Liberty style, which characterized several buildings, from the luxury residential building to the popular cinema, it was a style which captures the Liberty’s principle of the need of ornament, thus sparing use of motion in structure and use of standardized floral ribbons, garlands, folders and maliose decorative busts. Fully decorated in typical Art Nouveau style were signs and shop windows, bus shelters, attractive facilities for commercial (kiosks selling newspapers or flowers). With typical Art Nouveau ornament is the beautiful façade of Old Pharmacy “San Giovanni” in Cardinal Ferrari 3 / a. The façade is decorated with details of wild eagle at the mid top of the frieze, as well as women’s heads (Chemistry and Pharmacy) located at the height of the pilasters that frame teaching the entablature of the Old Pharmacy.

Parma Verona 2010Parma Verona 2010Parma Verona 2010Parma Verona 2010

Artist

Gyula Fodor

Co-Worker

Miksa Roth (for the stain glasses)

Year

1905

Location/Map

Style

Pure international Jugendstil/Art Nouveau stle. Actually the building shows one of the most beautiful example of iron portals which also include very interesting bronze details (by Gero and Gyory Company, Budapest). Window glasses are by the famous Hungarian artist Miksa Roth and his school.

Building is actually under reconstruction. As per our habit, we will have a look when the works will finish and if the restoration will finally follow a real conservative approach à la Alois Riegl.

Pictures

Façade

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Interiors (including glasses)

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Iron portal and details

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References

Build after design by Márkus Géza, fully decorated with Zsolnay ceramics on the façade and with floral decorations taken from the Hungarian folk art tradition, the Cifra Palace is considered one of the masterpiece of the Hungarian Szecesszio.

Kecskemeti Art Nouveau

Kecskemeti Art NouveauKecskemeti Art Nouveau

Although traditionally this work is considered as heavily influenced by the researches upon the National Hungarian Style performed by Odon Lechner and his fellowship, there are some evidences of autonomous researches performed by Markus which reveals an original and very interesting approach to the Art Nouveau style.

Stylistically the building could present some similarities with other building by Lechner, as for example the Postal Bank Saving or the Geological Institute; the massive use of Zsolnay ceramics on either Façade and roof, are also elements shared with several Lechner (and more in general, Hungarian) artistic production:

Kecskemeti Art NouveauKecskemeti Art NouveauKecskemeti Art NouveauKecskemeti Art Nouveau

Kecskemeti Art NouveauKecskemeti Art Nouveau

Anyway Geza Markus adpopted in his design and decorations, some interesting solution, which I couldn’t find in any Lechner production. By technical perspective, Markus used the technique of multi-layered sgraffitos which, on the white façade’s surface, represents lines and curves; even the Zsolnai decors are disposed in relief with the same effect:

Kecskemeti Art NouveauKecskemeti Art NouveauKecskemeti Art NouveauKecskemeti Art NouveauKecskemeti Art NouveauKecskemeti Art Nouveau

 

Stylistically, the decorations resemble the classic patterns of Hungarian folk arts: however, at a second sight, one notices that the patterns designed with Zsolnay tiles represent more abstract patterns with a sort of unique psychedelic taste. Combined with the all rounded shape of the palace, and enforced by the mushroom like  chimes on the roof, the Cifra palota goes to be similar to some audacious artistic production by Gaudi in Spain, something that Salvador Dali would probably have included into his definition of terrible and comestible Art Nouveau.

Kecskemeti Art NouveauKecskemeti Art NouveauKecskemeti Art NouveauKecskemeti Art NouveauKecskemeti Art NouveauKecskemeti Art NouveauKecskemeti Art NouveauKecskemeti Art NouveauKecskemeti Art NouveauKecskemeti Art NouveauKecskemeti Art NouveauKecskemeti Art NouveauKecskemeti Art NouveauKecskemeti Art NouveauKecskemeti Art Nouveau

 Artist

Architect: Emil Vidor

 Co-Worker

 

 Year 

1903

 Location/Map

 Style

 

 Pictures

Façade – Architect Emil Vidor

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A great example of belgian style lines and asymmetric façade. One of the rare examples of this style in Budapest

Furniture and objects at –1 floor

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Furniture and objects at ground floor

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Furniture and objects at first floor

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 References

 

 Artist

Sámuel Révész nèe Rosenfeld and József Kollár

 Co-Worker

 

 Year 

Sámuel  Révész (Rosenfeld) (Budapest, 1877 – Budapest, 1928. XI) and József Kollár (Pest. 1869 – Budapest, 1943. VI)

 Location/Map

 Style

At the turn of the century, the work of Revesz and Kollar represents a further development in the szecesszio style. Their style, in the context of Hungarian Art Nouveau, differ from the Lechner’s works, which tend to a definition of a national Hungarian way to art nouveau inheriting Hungarian folk art elements, and from the stylistic researches of Karoly Kos, Kozma Lajos, Bela Lajta and the Young Architects towards the modernist development of the Hungarian and Transilvanian country side architecture. The style of Revesz and Kollar is heavily influenced by Western Europe, in particular by the German Jugendstil.
The vertical development recalls some German architecture in Darmstadt as well as similar vertical development in Riga. The Neo-gothic stylistic elements, such as façade reliefs, symbolic images, scenes and characters on the façade, angled mascaroons, and carved flutes.
A very particular house also reports a sgraffito (definitively unusual in Budapest Art Nouveau scene) on its façade.
On the contrary of some Hungarian art tendencies (like Godollo school or some primitivism of folk art of the group of the Young Architects or Karoly Kos) tRevesz and Kollar made use of several technological improvements, like iron and glass window façades.
The artistic production of the two architects represent a completely different approach of the turn of the century art and aesthetic in Hungary. Loking better to the international developments rather than to the pure folk art and forms, Revesz and Kollar were within the ones who introduced modernist tendencies in Hungary, a style not influenced by Tolstoyan philosophy, rather with a strong cosmopolitan taste.

 Pictures

Budapest IX., Szamuely utca 30-32. Központi zálogház. architected in 1900, built 1901-1903

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Budapest VIII., Népszínház u. 7. Lakóház 1912

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Budapest VIII., Népszínház u. 7. Lakóház 1912

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Neo-gothic style with vertical lines strengthen with relief and carved marble. Symbolic images, scenes and characters on the façade, angled mascaroons, and carved flutes are all neo-gothic elements with a Jugendstil taste. The development of the building and the architectural lines move up to vertical lines.

 

Budapest VI., Zichy Jenő utca 10. dr. Weisz-ház 1903

Jozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel Revesz

 One of the most interesting Art Nouveau Building in Budapest. The façade is surmounted by two sgraffitos, a technique which was quite unusual in the Hungarian capital city at the turn of the century. Actually this one represents the sole sgraffito conceived and realized with a technique very close to the one widely adopted in Bruxelles (see: Bruxelles Sgraffites on artnouveau.at). Mascaroons differ from other Revesz and Kollar’s buildings. The building style is quite evidently influenced by the western Europe Art Nouveau. Any references to local Hungarian szecesszio is avoided, and the building lacks typical stylistic elements which constitutes the decoration basis of the Hungarian szecesszio.

Budapest V., Deák Ferenc utca 17. Lakó- és üzletház 1910 körül

Jozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszDSCF5062DSCF5061

Modernist tendencies and use of new materials (such like iron and curved glass surfaces) for one of the most interesting and technologically advanced production of Hungarian Art Nouveau.

Budapest V., Váci utca 11 /B. Láhne-üzlet-és lakóház 1912

Jozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel Revesz

 Gothic style combined with Secessionist one; geometric shapes and lines paired with terrific masks and strange characters; clean design combined with numerous symbolic decorative elements. Contradiction and syncretism were used by Sámuel Révész and Jószef Kollár to reinforce the multitude of interpretations of the symbols behind their works. The resulting effect is terrific: an enjoyment for the sight, an exciting challenge for the interpretative capabilities of the intellect, a final checkmate for the unifying efforts of the reason.

Budapest V Deák Ferenc u. 23. Modern-és Breitner Áruház és lakóház

DSCF5053DSCF5054Jozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszDSCF5057Jozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszDSCF5055

 

Budapest VI., Varosliget fasor 40. Révész-villa, saját házuk és műtermük 1911

Jozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel Revesz

 

Budapest VI., Lovag utca 20. Lakóház MP 1906/7

Jozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel Revesz

 

Budapest XIII.. Hegedűs Gyula utca 20. Lakóház 1909

Jozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel Revesz

 

Budapest XIII.. Hegedús Gyula utca 20. Lakóház 1909

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Budapest XIII.. Hegedús Gyula utca 8. Lakóház 1909

Jozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel Revesz

 

Budapest V., Március 15. tér 7. Lakóház 1914. Toldalékként épült a Mátyás Pince épületének eredeti, 1903-ban készüli, Schütz Rezső által tervezett részéhez.]

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Apartments house, Budapest VII, Akacfa utca 20

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Budapest V Báthory u. 7 Lakóház

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Schmahl neogótikus stílusában épült lakóház (Budapest VIII., Rákóczi út 7.).

Jozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel ReveszJozsef Kollar and  Samuel Revesz

Pure neo-gothic style with massive use of Gothic, trefoil and ogee arches.

Budapest XIII.. Hegedús Gyula utca 22-24. Lakóház 1909 (attribuited by Mattia Moretti)

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The decorative style (including squared face mascaroons and grotesque mascaroons just in relief over the façade, together with symbolic female figures) and sructural elements (vertical development, carved  and ondulated surface on the façade, thus providing a sort of neo-gothic taste) are evidences of the Revesz and Kollar art. The buildings themselves are also close to other (the one at number 20) by the same authors. I would then attributed these two apartments houses to Revesz and Kollar, while still seeking for the definitive evidence.

 References

 Sámuel Révész és Jószef Kollár: flying right up to the sky on artnouveau.at

 Artist

Sandor Abt

 Co-Worker

Zsolnay factories

 Year 

Evidence of the drawing back in 1900, Presented in World Exposition in Turin, 1902

 Location/Map

 

 Style

Ceramic worked with Eozin technique by Zsolnay Factories, Pecs.

 Pictures


Luna, by Sandor Abt, as seen in Budapest Art Fair, 2009 (probably original)

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 References

Luna, by Sandor Abt, in Deutsche Kunst und Dekoration, volume 11 (reportage on Hungarian Kunstgewerbe in Turin 1902)

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Luna, by Sandor Abt, in Iparmuveszet, volume 5 1900

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Luna, by Sandor Abt, remanufactured by Zsolnay industries, around 1920 (?)

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Decoration on the façade of the Budapest “Ferenc Liszt” music Academy, frieze by Geza Maroti, 1907

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Ferenc Helbing “Alom” (“the Dream”), 1902

Helbing-Alom

 Artist

Aladar Korosfoi Kriesch

 Co-Worker

 

 Year 

1907

 Location/Map

 Style

Quote from “Bartók and his world”, author Péter Laki

The most significant sign of the nationalist folk renewal during Bartók’s student years in Budapest was the creation of an artists’ colony, which included craftspeople, designers, and architects, in 190a at Gödöllő, a small town 30 kilometers northwest of Budapest. Its aesthetic philosophy was based on the later writings of Leo Tolstoy and on the ideas of William Morris and John Ruskin. Bartók’s awareness of the Gödöllő experiment can be inferred from the influence exerted by the colony’s celebration of Tolstoyan virtues. The display of allegiance to a credo of anticapitalist, antimodern spiritual simplicity among the Gödöllő circle, particularly in the case of the main ideolo¬gist of the Gödöllő group, the painter Aladár Körösfói Kriesch (1863-1920), was later emulated byBartók.

In 1907 Bartók exchanged the traditional nineteenth century-style Hungarian national outfit to which he had become attached (which he wore at his final recital at the Conservatory, despite the strenuous objections of his teacher, Thomán, who was understandably uncomfortable with its chauvinist and implicitly anti-Semitic symbolism) to a distinctly Tolstoyan outfit, characteristic of Gödöllő. Beyond the search for a simpler rural life as an alternative to the corruptions of urban industrialization and an allegiance to preindustrial artisan modes of production, the Gödöllő group was commit¬ted to documenting and emulating a "true" Hungarian folk art that predated 1848. This group of artists participated in a major study of rural peasant folk art. which ran parallel to Bartök’s and Kodály s re¬searches. A five-volume study was published, of which two focused on Transylvania. Bartók’s affinity for Hungarian folk furniture mirrored a fashion among Budapest intellectuals and artists dating from before 1905- The notion that the rediscovery of a vital rural folk tradition could function as a critical opposition to established Hungarian national ideology emerged in the visual arts before Bartók and Kodály began their work. Even the crafts done at the Zsolnay factory at the turn of the century, which Bartók certainly saw, reflect the ideal of a fusion between the folk Hungarian and the modern.8′- Members of the Gödöllő circle and the Nagybánya group, particularly the painters Sándor Nagy (1869-1950) and István Csók (1865-1961), shared the conviction thai in the synthesis between the rediscovery of a Hun¬garian rural folk tradition and Western aesthetic modernism a distinctly modern Hungarian art and culture would develop.

Gödöllő leading figure, Kriesch, was commissioned to paint the main mural for the new home of the Budapest Conservatory. The 1907 building, designed by Kálmán Gicrgl and Flóris Korb, showed the influence of Lechner. The building was begun in 1903, the year of Bartók s Kossuth. Unlike Lechner’s work, the frame of the building was more directly evocative of Western European historicism. Nevertheless. Jugendstil elements were evident in the exterior, particularly in the design of the facade, around the windows, and the entrance. The exterior statuary of the Conservatory was done by Géza Maróti (1875-1941), Hungary’s leading Jugendstil sculptor and architect, whose designs for the Milan Exposition of 1906celebrated folk, rural, and native Hungarian motifs.

The interior of the new Conservatory building was more radical. The decoration, particularly along the staircase, evoked the styles of distinctly Hungarian crafts. Kriesch s mural presented a symbolist al¬egory in which the embodiment of innocence, simplicity, devotion, and nature becomes a metaphor for the true source of art. The aspiration to a state of premodern purity evident in Kricsch’s renderings mirrored the anti-urban and anti-cosmopolitan direction of Hun¬garian aesthetic visual modernism during the first decade of the twen¬tieth century. Kriesch wrote, "We cannot bring art worthy of the name into modern life until we consciously restore the social conditions . . . in their more primitive and unconscious manifestations."*’ Few state¬ments were as reminiscent of and congruent with Bartok*s own rheto¬ric alKnit folk music than Kriesch s 1908 view concerning folk art: "The art of the Hungarian people, like all true art, is a fully organic »art of the life of the people

.

 Pictures

 Aladar Korosfoi KrieschAladar Korosfoi KrieschAladar Korosfoi Kriesch

 References

 

 Artist

Löffler Béla (Budapest. 1880 – ?) and Löffler Samu Sándor (Budapest, 1877 – ?)

 Co-Worker

Spiegel Frigyes

 Year 

Löffler Béla (Budapest. 1880 – ?) and Löffler Samu Sándor (Budapest, 1877 – ?)

 Location/Map

 Style

Of these two brothers, Bela was the most experienced. He graduated at Felső Építőipariskolát. Between 1897 and 1899 he worked jointly with Spiegel Frigyes and with Bela Lajta. He traveled throughout Europe with his brother Sandor, and he kept in touch with different architectural traditions. Returned in Hungary in 1906, he worked with the brother and with Spiegel , also in furniture design. After the First war he planned several apartements houses. In 1923, he designed the synagogue in Antwerp and then won the 1925 application to the Nationa Theatre in Jerusalem.

The Löffler apartment house lacks the Gödöll -inspired decorative elements. Dark colored austere construction, with essentialand geometrical lines, closer to the theoretical directions of an architect such as the AustrianAdolf Loos. Details, such as flower pot, well visible in the facade, are designed with geometric lines in a sort of checker board, following so much the Austrian secession taste, that
really it seems a typical production of the Wiener Werkstaetter, close to the ones designed by Josef Hofmann. On the Loffler building’s facade are often present human figures. Here the
sculpture style is, if possible, even more essential and absolutely in disregard respect to every
proportions directives: the spectator can feel immediately this lacks of proportions just looking
at the oversize heads of the figures. Animals are also present in those scenes, members of fantastic species, mythological animals, which seems
to directly come out of artist’s own dreams or incubuses. The spectator himself can feel the
inquietude of these human figure’s sights, at the same time, inexpressive and sinister as in a
work by Alfred Kubin. The Löffler’s symbolism is so obscure, and even difficult to translate into
meaningful images that constitutes a sort of intricate hermetism , similar to several works by
the German painter Franz von Stuck.

 Pictures

Budapest VI.. Aradi utca 57. Piatschek-ház. MÉ 1908/10

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Budapest VII., Síp utca 17. Lakóház MÉ 1908/10. Műlakatos-munka: Migray József

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Budapest VI., Székely Bertalan utca 2/B. és 2/C. Lakóházak 1909-1910

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Budapest VII., Izabella utca 34. Lakóház 1910

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Budapest II., Szilágyi Erzsébet fasor 1 Lakóház. Műlakatos-munka: Migray József. MÉ 1910/8.

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Budapest VI., Ö utca 49 Magyar Vegyikészítményű Papírgyár 1910 körül

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Budapest VIII., Népszínház utca 37 Lakóház. MÉ 1911/9

Sandor and Béla LöfflerSandor and Béla LöfflerSandor and Béla LöfflerSandor and Béla LöfflerSandor and Béla LöfflerSandor and Béla LöfflerSandor and Béla LöfflerSandor and Béla Löffler

Budapest VII., Kertész utca 29 Lakóház 1911 körül

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Budapest VII., Kazinczy utca 29-31 Ortodox izraelita hitközség temploma, iskoJája és lakóháza. Pályázat 1910. díjazva és kivitel 1912-1913.

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Budapest VII., Rákóczi út 74. Rosenberg Márk lakó- és üzletháza 1914.

Sandor and Béla LöfflerSandor and Béla Löffler

Budapest VII., Dob utca 35. Ortodox izraelita hitközség temploma, iskoJája és lakóháza. Pályázat 1910. díjazva és kivitel 1912-1913.

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