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Col presento articolo iniziamo intorno alla nostra Mostra, sotto Unti rapporti interessante,- una seria di studi, una vera rassegna particolareggiata, quinto l’argomento ne è degno e richiede. Il nostro collaboratore d’arte, Enrico Thovez, peri, nella sua qualità di segretario del Comitato artistico dell’Esposizione trovandosi impossibilitato ad occuparsi della materia, abbiamo chiamato a sostituirlo; per questa occasiono, Vittorio Pica, 11. giovane critico napoletano, la cui competenza in fatto d’arte, i incontestata, a già gli valse il primo premio all’ultimo concorro fra i critici bandito a Venezia. Non crediamo che il nostro Enrico Thovez, la cui collaborazione ci sarà sempre cara, potesse in tal»occasione avere un miglior costituto.

« C’est une Juliennel > Questa definizione del Théàtre de l’Opera di Parigi, coll otreasticamente efficace nella sua grossolanità culinaria, che un giorno i fratelli Goncourt colsero sullo labbra di un artigiano contemplante il fastoso edificio di Charles Garnier, mi è ritornata assai spesso alla mente nel guardare qualche glorificato monumento del secolo tramontato ora e poco. La verità, che niuno più del resto oserebbe negare, è che il Novecento, così vario, cosi possente, cosi novatore nelle scienze, nelle lettere e nelle altre branche dell’arte non è riuscito ad avere un’architettura propria. I palazzi, le chiese, i teatri e gli altri pubblici edifici, piuttosto che mostrare, come nei secoli antecedenti, una peculiare fisionomia parzialmente originale, sono stati copie, contraffazioni, parodie degli edificii di altre età, oppure, tutte lo vòlte che gli architetti hanno voluto fare sfoggio di una fantasia inventiva che mancava loro, ci si sono presentati quali laboriose composizioni di elementi disparati, presi qui e là ed amalgamati con più o meno abilità. Non soltanto giustificata ma altamente lodevole e, dunque,- la febbrile passione estetica che, già da alcuni anni, stimola o sospinge artisti di varia nazionalità ed il cui ingegno vivido ed ardimentoso non sa acquietarsi alle vecchie formule, a rinnovare di continuo i tentativi per dotare alfine l’epoca nostra di un nuovo stile architettonico, il quale risponda alle nuovo esigenze, alle nuove aspirazioni, ai nuovi gusti della società odierna e, in pari tempo, si accordi con lo sviluppo sempre più grandioso e sempre più avido d’originalità di tutte le arti applicate.

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Kubin’s "The Other Side"
The Novel written in metaphorical and symbolic language is a sort of autobiographic novel. The narrator, Kubin himself decides, along with his wife to move to “Pearl”, the capital of a built in Central Asia, dream realm, pull, whose daily life of Ancient (old buildings, mills, homes, disreputable bars, towers, cafes), a Kafkaesque bureaucratic hierarchy and emotional discord (hysteria, anxiety, disorientation, chaos and obsessions) is controlled, and in which there is neither technical nor cultural progress. The inhabitants of the city, shrouded by dense fog, are sensitive dreamer, subject only to the logic of the dream world. Patera, the ruler of the dream realm is left to decay, so the chaos is increasing.

Kubin’s novel exerted a decisive influence on writers like Franz Kafka, Gustav Meyrink and Ernst Jünger.
It is probably also in the sense Kubin, if we interpret the novel as so many of his prints as a symbol of the fatalistic view of things, but even he calls himself a fatalist.
In the novel "The Other Side" and also in the drawings noted Ernst Jünger a peculiarity of the composition, which he calls "unrelated simultaneity," a blunt isolation of the individuals who are in the world such as in a number of prison cells next to each other act similarity to Georg Trakl.

Alfred Kubin - die Andere SeiteAlfred Kubin - die Andere SeiteAlfred Kubin - die Andere SeiteAlfred Kubin - die Andere SeiteAlfred Kubin - die Andere Seite

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SARTORIO Giulio Aristide, Sybil. Dramatic poem in four acts
Milan, L’Eroica, 1922. In the 4th largest, 219 – [11] p., I fb, 219 etchings on zinc (including 70 full page). Binding editorial cartoon, with illustrations on the front plate.1018 and number of the signature of Ettore Cozzani and Giulio Aristide Sartorio.

One of the masterpieces of Italian graphic design of the twentieth century. This magnificent edition, published in only 1333 numbered copies signed by the artist and publisher Ettore Cozzani and fully engraved on zinc, is the most important contribution to the art of book Sartorio. The beautiful illustrations, typefaces and decorative friezes were designed and implemented in a period of time of over ten years: Sartorio began to prepare the sheets of zinc in 1912. .Partially published in the journal L’Eroica (in the years 1913-14) where Cozzani explains the technique used by the artist to run the plates, engraved on wood instead of zinc, but with the system of engraving in relief with effect woodcut by applying acid in the parts where you did not want to deposit the ink (E. Bardy, searches of the ‘Black’, p. 133). After the impression all the printing material was destroyed. Giulio Aristide Sartorio – painter, sculptor, writer, illustrator and photographer – (Rome, 1860-1930) spent considerable time in Weimar, Paris and London, was attracted by the Pre-Raphaelites, he joined the group "In Arte Libertas’ and was among the founders of Twenty-five of the "Roman Countryside". Aristide Sartorio is also famous because it has performed extensive pictorial frieze in the Chamber of Deputies building and dedicated to the history of Italian civilization.

Aristide Sartorio -SibillaAristide Sartorio -SibillaAristide Sartorio -Sibilla

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The musical Arabesque or rather the principle of ornament is at the basis of all forms of art.

Claude Debussy

"To whichever of the applied arts any given building may belong, in creating it one has to pay particular attention to ensuring that it and its exterior aspect conform in every respect to its designated purpose and its natural form.  Nothing is legitimate that does not form an organism, or a link between the various organisms.  No ornament can be permitted that is not organically absorbed."
Was ich will, 1901

"I wish to replace the old symbolic elements, which have lost their effectiveness for us today, with a new, imperishable beauty… in which ornament has no life of its own but depends on the forms and lines of the object itself, from which it receives its proper organic place."’
Was ich will, 1901

"I see ornament in architecture as having a dual function. On the one hand it offers support to the construction and draws attention to the means it employs; on the other… it brings life into a uniformly illuminated space by the interplay of light and shade."
Kunstgewerbliche Laienpredigten, 1902

Henry van de Velde

The combining impressions on Art Nouveau concepts may have inspired Debussy to base his Arabesque composition from the designs found in, for example, Arabic art.  The movements and curved lines of the motives dissolve into purposeless lines, into ornaments (arabesques). This two-dimensional, ornamental means of portrayal has its counterpart in Asiatic art. 

The repetitive patterns in the picture is synonymous to the repetitive musical idea presented in the first few measures which is present throughout the piece.  I used an arabesque pattern in a pottery picture, quadruplicated it, and fit those four together by inverting and rotating the images so that they form one whole piece.

The different line designs indicate the different parts of the piece.  The flowing musical lines are like the curvy decorative designs.  The freedom of form (not to he mistaken for its dissolution) does not indicate a rhapsodic gliding-over from one bar to another or a loose improvisation on a couple of sounds or scraps of melody. To the contrary, everything is most carefully composed; every detail is minutely indicated. Like the intricacies of the arabesque designs in visual art, melodic form can still be seen or heard.

As reported by Maria Francesca Cuccu in her essay “La "musica sognata" di Claude Debussy”, innovative and essential element in the music of Debussy is the Arabesque, subtle combination of floral and geometric elements, which the composer himself called "divine." The flexible whip line of Arabesque also beloved by Baudelaire evoke the most spiritual design and the most ideal: it is "a figure that does not develop in a supreme way using the technique of narrative or representation, but stands out in the manner of the fresco ornamentation on a surface in motion, without describing, without concluding epilogue, in a happy ending, but assuming a purely instantaneous ".

Claude Debussy – Arabesque Number 1

Floral ornaments in Art Nouveau

Jankélévitch compares certain melodic motifs of Debussy with a botanical phenomenon, the geotropism, ie the influence of gravity orientation on leaves and roots. Then, we can talk of positive and negative geotropism, the one used to indicate attraction to a center of gravity, the other indicates the tend of the stems to grow away from the center of the earth. (The student applies the confrontation with this phenomenon is also the symbolic meaning of plants and floral motifs of Art Nouveau and the relationship with the flowing lines of women’s hair.)

 

Femmes avec les cheveux de Lins, in Art Nouveau vignettes

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Claude Debussy – La fille aux cheveux de lin

Femmes avec les cheveux de Lins, in Art Nouveau vignettes

Debussy’s arabesques would follow the phenomenon: rising, creating a sense of rootlessness given by the superposition of perfect chords, each on a different key, which does not give continuity and a musical discourse of reason but merely to exist in space. In descent, Debussy arabesque symbolizes a feeling of fear and flight, drop or droop, especially sensual "vers cette inclinaison pudique vers le bas est une des marques les plus caractéristiques de la phrase debussyste" (11). Debussy believed in the magic power of Arabesque, symbol full of mystery and sensuality. The evidence for this oriental charm was the same that had aroused in him when he was able to hear the music of Bali and Java Indonesia. In these islands was practiced harmony set up two separate scales: <pelog> and <slendro>, both pentatonic, but the first (called female) has a major third, while the second (called the male) a minor third.

Life

(b Paris, 23 March 1857; d Paris, 11 Aug 1939). French painter. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and in the studios of Henri Lehmann, Fernand Cormon and Léon Bonnat. His Salon entry in 1880, Portrait of M. O. (untraced), reflected his early attraction to the realist tradition of Spanish 17th-century painting. The impact of Impressionism encouraged him to lighten his palette and paint landscapes en plein air, such as In the Fields of Eragny (1888; Paris, Y. Osbert priv. col.). By the end of the 1880s he had cultivated the friendship of several Symbolist poets and the painter Puvis de Chavannes, which caused him to forsake his naturalistic approach and to adopt the aesthetic idealism of poetic painting. Abandoning subjects drawn from daily life, Osbert aimed to convey inner visions and developed a set of pictorial symbols. Inspired by Puvis, he simplified landscape forms, which served as backgrounds for static, isolated figures dissolved in mysterious light. A pointillist technique, borrowed from Seurat, a friend from Lehmann’s studio, dematerialized forms and added luminosity. However, Osbert eschewed the Divisionists’ full range of hues in his choice of blues, violets, yellows and silvery green. Osbert’s mysticism is seen in his large painting Vision (1892; Paris, Mus. d’Orsay). The Rosicrucian ideal of ‘art as the evocation of mystery, like prayer’ finds no better expression than the virginal figure of Faith—often interpreted as either St Geneviève or St Joan—set in a meadow with a lamb and enmeshed in an unearthly radiance. Such works were praised by Symbolist writers who considered them visual counterparts of the poetry of Paul Verlaine, Stéphane Mallarmé and Maurice Maeterlinck. Osbert was called a ‘painter of evenings’, an ‘artist of the soul’ and a ‘poet of silence’ for his evocation of a mood of mystery and reverie. (Source: The Grove Dictionary of Art)

Works

Vision, 1892

This painting was presented at the Salon of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts in 1892 before featuring the following year in the second Rose+Croix Salon which brought together the elite of the Symbolist artists. A later presentation of the work, in 1899, provides more information about its subject: a vision of St Genevieve, the patron saint of Paris.
Like many of Osbert’s paintings, this mystical, meditative painting uses a range of blues with no attempt at realism and no desire to illustrate the saint’s role in defending Paris against the Hun invasion in the mid-fifth century. Distinct in that respect from traditional history or religious paintings, this work, which drew much comment from journalists and art lovers who saw it on display, was considered to be more an illustration of a soul state. Since then, links have been established with neurological research, particularly that of Jean-Martin Charcot. It may be that the ecstatic state of the model, her rigid pose and fixed upward gaze were inspired by research into hysteria which was being carried out at the Salpétrière Hospital at the time. Reports on this research, illustrated by photographs, were widely circulated by the contemporary press.

 

Exhibition presentation

Europeana is organising a public event, to mark the upcoming launch of Europeana’s virtual exhibition of Art Nouveau.

In Brussels, at the heart of European Art Nouveau, there will be a special lecture by Art Nouveau expert Prof. Dr. Werner Adriaenssens, Curator of Decorative Arts of the 20th Century, Royal Museums for Art and History.

The talk will be followed by an open discussion, ‘Why digitise culture?’ featuring 3 key figures in Belgian digital innovation:

Jef Malliet – Erfgoedplus.be, Provinciaal Centrum voor Cultureel Erfgoed, Hasselt
Sandra Fauconnier – Collection and Mediatheque at Netherlands Media Art Institute
Gert Nulens – IBBT/SMIT

The event will be held at the Belgian Comic Strip Centre, a masterpiece of Victor Horta’s Art Nouveau architecture. It is free for the public to attend, but places should be reserved in advance.

TIME: 15.00

DATE: 30 September 2010

ADDRESS: Belgian Comic Strip Centre, 20 rue des Sables (Zandstraat), B-1000 Brussels, Belgium

Web Access

Virtual Exhibition is accessible clicking the image below:

Art Nouveau Virtual Exhibition

Life

Josef Plečnik, born 23 1. 1871 Ljubljana (Ljubljana, Slovenia), † 6 1. Ibid 1957, was architect and designer. Studied in L. Theyer in Graz and 1894-98 in O. Wagner at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna, participating in Wagner’s office in the planning of the Vienna city railway; 1900-11 were his most important works in Vienna, for which he also designed the interior (Zacherl House in Vienna 1, 1903-05) ; 1911-20 teaching at the vocational school in Prague and fixtures at the Prague Castle. His most important sacred works are in Vienna (Holy Ghost Church in Vienna, 16, 1910-13) and Prague (Sacred Heart Church, 1928-32). After 1920 remained Plečnik in Ljubljana, in addition to his teaching at the university there, he determined the appearance of the city sustained by buildings and urban planning decisions and became the founder of modern Slovenian architecture, developing a formal style which became quite different by the one of his early mentors,  G. Semper and O.Wagner.

The Zacherhaus in Vienna

Zacherhaus – the building

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From an article on Orf magazine (http://wien.orf.at/magazin/studio/wienheute/stories/61317/):

Es war das erste "moderne" Haus in der Innenstadt – das so genannte Zacherlhaus. Den Reiz daran macht vor allem die Fassade mit den grauen, glänzenden Granitplatten und den steinernen Linien aus.
Beeindruckende Fassade.
Außergewöhnliches Stiegenhaus
Das Zacherlhaus wurde nach dem Bauherrn und damaligen Eigentümer Johann Zacherl benannt. Es zählt zu den bedeutendsten Bauten der Otto-Wagner-Schule. Im Erdgeschoss und Mezzanin ist es eines der ersten Eisenbetonbauwerke Wiens.
Geplant hat es Anfang des letzten Jahrhunderts der slowenische Architekt Josef Plecnik. Eine Besonderheit: die kleine, aber feine Eingangshalle. Insektenartige Leuchtkörper zieren das Stiegenhaus, in Anspielung auf den Mottenpulverfabrikanten und Eigentümer Johann Zacherl.

Heute ist das denkmalgeschützte Zacherlhaus ein Bürohaus. Türen und Fenster sind noch original. Fehlende Beschläge wurden sogar nachgegossen.
Im Auftrag der heutigen Eigentümers, den Nachfahren des Bauherrn Johann Zacherl, wird sehr sorgfältig mit dem Haus umgegangen. Man ist sich der Bedeutung des Hauses bewusst.

Zacherhaus – details

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Clean surface with metal bronze inserts, straight lines, symmetrical decorations, linear and non-rounded statues: these the very aesthetic elements which characterize the building. An aesthetic which influenced further development of the secession style trough the Austrian Hungarian Empire. Eventually, follow up to Plečnik innovative can be found in several buildings in Budapest, designed by architect who were mostly influenced by the European secessionist movement more than by the quest for a local folk oriented Hungarian way to the Art Nouveau.

Zacherhaus – Atlas decoration

Atlas figures in Teleki tér, 1, VIII district, Budapest

 

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Zacherhaus – Atlas decoration

Atlas figures, Vörösmarty tér 3. Kasselik-alapítvány üzlet- és bérháza(Korb Flóris és Giergl Kálmán) 1911.

 

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Zacherhaus  – vertical lines on the angled façade

Apartments house in Becsi ut, II District Budapest (Revesz and Kollar ?)

 

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At the turn of the Century, like in many other Italian cities, also in Parma began a full recovery of public housing and residential houses ,thus reflecting the changing conditions of economic and cultural-historical conditions, strictly related to the progressive destruction of the ancient mighty ramparts. By an architectural point of view, the re- was stilistically related to the introduction of lively and stimulating aesthetic ideas of the Art Nouveau. In the case of Parma the adoption of the new style was progressive and gradual:at the very beginning, decoration took the very part of the stylistic renovation while it was only in the second decade of the XX century that a more conscious adoption of the architectural topic of the modernist movement had a meaningful development in Emilia and in Parma ( see also the article on the Salsomaggiore Spa, http://www.szecesszio.com/2010/04/08/terme-berzieri-spa-in-salsomaggiore-pr-architect-ugo-giusti-decorations-by-galileo-chini/).

Parma Verona 2010Parma Verona 2010

In Parma and his province flourishes the Liberty style, which characterized several buildings, from the luxury residential building to the popular cinema, it was a style which captures the Liberty’s principle of the need of ornament, thus sparing use of motion in structure and use of standardized floral ribbons, garlands, folders and maliose decorative busts. Fully decorated in typical Art Nouveau style were signs and shop windows, bus shelters, attractive facilities for commercial (kiosks selling newspapers or flowers). With typical Art Nouveau ornament is the beautiful façade of Old Pharmacy “San Giovanni” in Cardinal Ferrari 3 / a. The façade is decorated with details of wild eagle at the mid top of the frieze, as well as women’s heads (Chemistry and Pharmacy) located at the height of the pilasters that frame teaching the entablature of the Old Pharmacy.

Parma Verona 2010Parma Verona 2010Parma Verona 2010Parma Verona 2010

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